Track Categories

The track category is the heading under which your abstract will be reviewed and later published in the conference printed matters if accepted. During the submission process, you will be asked to select one track category for your abstract.

Aquatic Biology is a sub-discipline of biology it deals with biology and ecology of organisms living in freshwater systems such as streams and lakes to estuarine, coastal and open ocean ecosystems. Aquatic biology it includes:

1. Biological oceanography
2. Limnology
3. Marine biology

Aquatic Biology is the science of living things involved with the fresh water ecosystems of our planet. Which they will study wetlands, rivers, lakes and ponds. Aquatic Biology is aMultidisciplinary forum for analysis on the biology of organisms in Marine, salt and contemporary waters.

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Biotechnology contributes to current or potential uses of marine products with in the areas of:
1. Cultivation & Conservation of marine ecosystems
2. Therapeutics/medicines
3. Aquatic animal health and seafood safety
4. Biomedical analysis
5. Algae cultivation
The Ocean It covers virtually three fourths of our planet and has the potential to feed the planet and provide cures for several diseases. Studying sea plants and animals is a challenge that is becoming easier due to advanced technologies like deep-sea submersibles, sonar, lasers, videos, and satellites.
Biotechnology provides chances for improving the health of aquatic organism and the safety of the food supply. More than 50 diseases affect fish and cause millions of dollars in losses each year. Many molecular probes assays are being developed for detecting bacteria, viruses and parasites that infect fish and shellfish. A hand-held antibody test kit has been developed to detect Vibrio cholera, the virus that causes cholera, in oysters Moreover, specific marine bacteria have been developed that can aid in the offensive effort if a toxic spill should occur; thus biotechnology can help society by protecting the environment as well.  Biotechnologists are also interested in developing vaccines for Disease causing agents that pose threats to fish cultivated by aquaculture, Aquatic biotechnologists are also working to detect contaminated seafood by identifying genes with encoded toxins.

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Fish pathology deals with the diseases and disease causing agents that effects fish normal living. It studies fish protective mechanism against diseases and its cure. Areas of interest of pathology is regularly covered include host-pathogen relationships, fish pathogen studies, pathophysiology, diagnostic methods, therapy, epidemiology, descriptions of new diseases.
Diseases of fish and shellfish affect both wild and aquaculture populations, accounting millions of dollars of loss in fishery revenues and ecosystem services each year there are some fish diseases and   infections that can be transmitted from fish to water in which they are transmitted to humans.
Aquatic Pathology it includes

1. Fish pathology
2. Host pathogen interactions
3. Wild life pathology
4. Diseases of aquatic molluscs
5. Diseases of crustaceans

Disease transmission from fish to humans is dependent upon several factors including
1. Type of organism (Viral, Parasitic or Bacterial)
2. The liability of the host
3. Environmental Factors   

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Aqua cultural engineering is a field of engineering that aims to solve technical problems associated with aquatic farming; aquaculture systems requiring optimization and engineering include sea cages, ponds and recirculating systems etc... The design and management of these systems is based on their production goals and the farming operations. Aquaculture engineering has played major role in the expansion of the aquaculture industry, understanding the engineering behind aquatic production facilities is of increasing importance for all those working in the industry.

Aquaculture technology requiring knowledge of mechanical, biological and environmental systems along with instrumentation and material technology

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The aquaculture economics reviewed on the basis of two levels
1. Micro – economics
2. Macro – economics

1. Micro - economics: Micro economics mainly deals with the management measures and elements affecting the efficiency of operation at the farm level

2. Macro-economics: Macro-economic deals with the assessment of social benefits and costs of an aquaculture project.

The importance of economic analysis is highlighted since it provides a basis not only in the decision making of the individual farmer, but also in the formulation of aquaculture policies. Thus, greater consideration should be focused on the progress of economic data for analysis In the USA less than $50 million is spent annually for research and development in Aquatic Biotechnology, Japan spends between $900 million and $1 billion annually.
The Effective analysis of Asian countries that have spent with in basic science research on aquatic biotechnology and the economic success of their products have encouraged other countries to invest a substantial amount of time and resources in aquatic biotechnology

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Aquatic organisms classified into 4 major groups varying on their habitat, biological characteristics & adaptations

1. Micro Organisms
2. Plants
3.Invertebrates
4.Vertebrates

Aquatic animals relate to animals that live predominantly in different water forms, such as seas,oceans, rivers, lakes, ponds, etc.aquatic animals include fish, jellyfish, sharks, whales, octopus, barnacle, sea otters, crocodiles, crabs, dolphins, eels, rays, mussels, and  Aquatic plants such as water hyacinth, water lettuce, water fern, duckweed, water lilies, and water grass. And these habitats where aquatic animals and plants live on are referred to as aquatic habitats it may be freshwater, marine, or salt water. Organisms possess morphological and anatomical adaptations that enable them to live and increase in aquatic habitats. Aquatic animals that can move freely using their fins or tentacles, and other locomotory organelles to propel themselves in an aquatic medium

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Aquaculture is the fastest growing agro-industry all seafood consumed currently comes from aquaculture. Aquaculture must increase production three-fold in the next 20 years to fill the gap between the increasing demand and declining supply of fishery products.

Aquaculture production systems are
1.extensive
2. Semi-intensive
3. Intensive

1. Extensive: Fish have been farmed extensively, for many centuries, by nurturing a natural environment with little or no inputs.
2. Semi-intensive: The end of the 20th century saw the development of intensive fish farming with a greater use of inputs with high stocking densities welfare.

The highest aquaculture production tonnages are  mainly three families they are carps(61%),tilapias(9%) and salmonids(6%) of total global farmed fish production tonnage.  Carp are often farmed with different species of carp stocked together by  polyculture systems to  exploit the different ecological niches of the pond ecosystem.Carp and tilapia farming can beextensive

3. Intensive :salmonids farming can be (mostly Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout) is generally intensive.Aquaculture production is generally defined as the cultivation of the fishes and crustaceans taken from marine and sea tanks. Aquaculture playing major role in many emerging economies

Production by country
Norway is the highest production with more than 650 thousand tonnes in 2005, UK produced 172 thousand tonnes in 2005, and Turkey’s production of nearly 120 thousand tonnes Norway increased its production by nearly 29%.  Turkey increased its output from 2001 to 2005 by 77% Turkish production consists mainly of trout, sea bream and sea bass.

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Aquatic plants are plants that have adapted to living in saltwater or freshwater environments they are also referred to as hydrophytes or macrophytes.
Hydrophytes: hydrophytes are aquatic plants that are especially suitable for alive in aquatic Environments. a hydrophyte is  also known as an aquatic macrophyte, whichever completely Submerged in water or in some cases float on the surface of the water

Aquatic plants are four main types
They are:
floating plants
deep water plants
marginal plants
oxygenating plants.
In rivers macrophytes cover for fish and substrate for aquatic invertebrates, produce oxygen, and food for some fishes and wildlife.
Aquatic plants require special variations for living submerged in water, or at the water's surface. The most common variation is aerenchyma, but floating leaves and finely dissected leaves are also common. Aquatic plants can only grow in water or in soil that is always saturated with water. They are therefore a mutual component of wetlands

Some aquatic plant functions are:

1. The production of oxygen, they oxygenate the water via plant processes through photosynthesis
2. Providing underwater cover for fish, amphibians, birds, insects and many other organisms

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Freshwater aquaculture is the culture of aquatic species within the  freshwater environment.
The main species of freshwater fish produced, other than barramundi, are:

  • Silver perch (Bidyanus bidyanus)
  • jade perch, or Barcoo grunter, (Scortum barcoo)
  • Australian bass (Macquaria novemaculeata)
  • Murray cod (Maccullochella peelii peelii).

Fresh water culture systems: cultivable organisms are cultured in different types of culture systems there are three culture systems

pen culture systems
1. Cage culture
2. Pen culture
3. Raft culture
4. Rack culture

Closed culture system
1.Water recirculation system

Semi-closed culture system
1. Pond culture
2. Raceway culture
The selection of the system depends up on the function of the organisms to be grown and ideas of the farmer

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In world both developed and developing nations there has been tremendous growth in the farming of aquatic organism’s studies have showed that production can be increased by Supplying nutritionally adequate formulated feed
Based on the feeding the cultivable species are categorized in to
1. Carnivores
2.hebivores
3.omnivores
all aquatic organisms require five groups of nutrients, lipid and carbohydrate energy sources for Metabolism and protein is utilised for growth Aquatic animals require vitamins and minerals as components in their diet

Depending up on their nutrient composition feed ingredients are classified into

1. Protein concentrates: ingredients containing more than 20% protein are generally consider as Protein concentrates
2. Energy concentrates: ingredients containing less than 20% protein  energy are generally Consider as energy concentrates
3. roughages: ingredients containing more than 18% crude fibre are generally consider as  Roughages
4.minerals
5.vitamins
6.additives

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Fisheries science is the study and understanding of fisheries. It is a multidisciplinary science, which Deals withthe limnology, oceanography, freshwaterbiology, marineBiology, conservation, ecology, population dynamics, economics and management to provide a Combined picture of fisheries. In some cases new restraints have emerged, as in the case of bio Economics and fisheries law.
 

Fishing facts:

Fishing is important to the world economy for all of these years, starting with the Viking trade of cod and then continuing with fisheries like those found in Lofoten, Europe, Italy, Portugal, Spain and India. Fisheries provide about 16% of the total world's protein with higher percentages occurring in developing nations. Fisheries are still extremely important to the economy and wellbeing of communities.

The word fisheries science refers to all of the fishing activities in the ocean
They are to obtain fish for the commercial fishing industries are for recreation or to obtain Ornamental fish or fish oil.

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Fish pathology deals with the diseases and disease causing agents that effects fish ordinary living. Fish pathology it studies fish defensive mechanism against diseases and its treatment. Fish pathology is regularly covered host pathogen relationships, fish pathogens, pathophysiology, diagnostic methods, therapy, epidemiology and descriptions of new diseases and it provides us knowledge about the disease and syndromes caused in humans who feed on seafood along with its cure
fish suffer from diseases and parasites  like humans and other animals. Fish defences against disease are
1.specific: specific defences are particular pathogens recognises by the fish’s body , in recent years fish vaccines are widely using In aquaculture
 2.non-specific:non-specific defences include skin and scales as well as the mucus layer secreted by the epidermis that traps the pathogens and inhibits their growth

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Commercial aquaculture production in japan
aquaculture production has developed rapidly in japan and now it occupies an important position in fisheries sector
In japan consumption of fish is more consumption of animal protein person per day about 36.9 Grams this increased demand really helped for development of japans national economy in 1960s

Commercial fishing in japan
Japan is the largest fish eating nation in the world which its consuming 7.5 billion tons of fish a year this is equivalent to 30kilograms a year per person 66% of the fish consumed in japan is natively caught. According to a national geographic survey the largest harvesters of fish were japan, china, Peru, Chile, Russia the U.S.
During the last 10 years, cultivation, particularly Mariculture has undergone outstanding enlargement to counter-balance the gap between the provision and demand of fishery product in Japan. Its enlargement has additionally been supported by the Normal preference of the Japanese people for food. The culture-based fisheries, or Marine farming, have become a topic for any development in Japan. a lot of analysis work has been conducted with a good degree of governmental support. Institution of a web work of seed stock production farms has created it doable to hold out emotional experiments on an outsized scale.       

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The aquatic atmosphere may be outlined as interacting system of resources like water and accumulation. The planet contains a type of lentic aquatic environment, that square measure a serious supply of food to several people across the planet. The abundance and distribution of fishes within the water square measure the product of interaction among fishes and their chemical,physical and biological surroundings. Hence, the dynamics of aquatic atmosphere depends on theproperties of water. Environmental forces like temperature, light, dissolved chemical element,current, population density that touch the live of aquatic animal squaremeasure complicated and interconnected in theireffects.The unprecedented development on all fronts related to quick growth of humanand Bostaurus population has caused fast deterioration within the aquatic atmosphere. the mostimportant effects of the economic discharge on aquatic fauna and water quality area unit themortality and contamination of water by harmful metals. Therefore, conservation andmanagement of those resources with the atmosphere are a unit of dominant interest. Theexponential growth of human population and progressive industry area unit sitting serious threats to aquatic atmosphere and its resources potential. Consequently, atmosphere is rising together of thehighest priorities, and also the aquatic atmosphere has gained new dimensions.

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The fishing trade includes any industry or activity involved with taking, culturing, processing, preserving, storing, transporting, promoting or marketing fish or fish products. it's outlined by the Food and Agriculture Organization as together with recreational, subsistence and industrial fishing, and therefore the harvest home, processing, and promoting sectors. The business activity is aimed toward the delivery of fish and alternative food products for human consumption or as input factors in alternative industrial processes. Directly or indirectly, the resource of over five hundred million people in developing countries depends on fisheries and cultivation.

There are three principal industry sectors:

The commercial sector: comprises enterprises and people associated with wild-catch or aquatic resources and the various transformations of these resources into products available. It is also referred to as the "seafood industry", although non-food things like pearls are a unit enclosed among its products

The traditional sector: comprises enterprises and people related to fisheries resources from that aboriginal individuals derive products in accordance with their traditions.

The recreational sector: comprises enterprises and people  associated for the purpose of recreation, sport or sustenance with fisheries resources from that  products are derived that are not for sale Factors Affecting
Fishing Industry

Environmental factors: Fishing business is affected by environmental factors including dynamically climatic conditions. Rough seas, high winds and storms avoid and cuts short the trip of fishermen. In different situations, fishery participants are prevented from leaving the harbor due to  harsh climatic conditions and it affects the standard of fish harvested.

Regulatory factors: Fishing industry is additionally affected by regulatory factors. Federal and state laws govern industrial fishing. They limit the capability of fishermen to provide enough seafood to its consumers. However, such laws are also important because they are projected to sustain different fishery resources.

Economic factors:Fishing industry is also affected by economic factors. It’s been with success established by economists and different researchers within the business that, competition with different workplace products will adversely have an effect on the business when gas costs are up, fishery participants also have to pay more a lot of on their fishing journeys. This can be one in all the explanations on why totally different stakeholders are working hard to develop new promoting ways to boost fishing industry. Measures to promote the standard of seafood have also been put in place to help manage economic factors affecting the industry. New domestic markets have additionally been developed over the recent past. It affects fishing industry with in the sense that, fish together with ocean urchins are currently sold-out regionally in several countriesDemand and stock of fish also affects fishing industry. There are high seasons and low seasons. When the demand for fish is high, the costs go up and when the demand is low, costs go down

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Marine chemistry is the study of processes of chemicals and composition of chemicals of the world’s oceans and it also deals with the chemical composition of the sea water it is therefore a special field of water chemistry and it also deals with aspects of atmospheric chemistry, geochemistry, the biosphere and environmental chemistry
Marine Chemistry is also known as Ocean chemistry, Marine chemistry influenced by Turbidity, currents, sediments, atmospheric constituents, metamorphic activity and ecology. The field of marine chemistry studies the chemistry of marine environments including the influences of diverse variables.
Marine chemistry deals with the conditions and interactions between organic and inorganic compounds and the physical geological and biological conditions and the interactions of chemical systems with the marine organisms in the ocean. Marine chemistry involves studying the structural and compositional transformations as well as energy transformations

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Marine biology is the study of marine organisms that deals with animals and plants that live in the ocean. Major aim of marine biology is to discover how ocean phenomena control the circulation of organisms Special attention is given to determining the dynamics of marine ecosystems
Marine life is a huge resource, providing food, medicine, and raw materials, in addition to helping to support recreation and tourism all over the world. Marine organisms contribute significantly to the oxygen-cycle, and the guideline of the Earth's climate  in part protected by marine life, and some marine organisms even help create new land. Many types of species  are economically important to humans, including both finfish and shellfish. It is also becoming agreed that the well-being of marine organisms and other organisms are linked in fundamental ways. The study of marine biology includes a extensive variety of disciplines such as astronomy, biological oceanography, cellular biology, chemistry, ecology, geology, meteorology, molecular biology, physical oceanography and zoology

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Mari culture is a branch of aquaculture involving the cultivation of marine organisms for food and other products. Mari culture is defined as the cultivation of the marine organisms in the open ocean or in tanks or ponds which are filled with seawater. An example of the Mari culture is farming of marine fish, including finfish and shellfish like prawns, or oysters and seaweed in saltwater ponds. Non-food products produced by Mari culture include: fish meal, nutrient agar, cosmetics, and Jewellery e.g. cultured pearls

Mari culture has quickly expanded over the last two decades due to new technology, improvements feeds and greater biological understanding of farmed species, increased water quality within closed farm systems, greater demand for seafood products

Commonly identified environmental impacts from marine farms are:
1.Wastes from cage cultures
2.Farm escapees and invasive
3.Genetic pollution and disease and parasite transfer
4.Habitat modification.

Types of Mari culture:
1. Seawater ponds
2. Tank farming
3. Alga culture
4.Sea Cage farming
5. Long Line farming
6. Raceway farming Fish hatcheries
7.Integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA)

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Pisciculture is the artificial breeding and transplantation of the fish is called Pisciculture or fish farming Pisciculture mainly involves raising fish commercially in enclosures for food Pisciculture is the principal form of aquaculture , the most important fish species produced in fish farming are carp, tilapia, salmon, and catfish.

There are two main types of Pisciculture
1.The Rearing in imprisonment of young fishes to an edible stage
2.Stocking of natural waters with eggs

Importance of Pisciculture is:

1. it has a major role in augmenting  food production as the world demand for fish products  is increasingly  steadily
2. It helps to utilize the vast areas like paddy fields can be used for circulating of fishes
3. Pisciculture generate employment for many people in the rural areas of developing countries

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Oceanography is also called oceanology or marine science, Oceanology is the study of the physical and the biological aspects of the ocean. It is an Earth science covering a varied range of topics, including ecosystem dynamics; ocean currents, waves, and geophysical fluid dynamics; geology of the sea floor; and fluxes of various chemical ingredients and physical properties within the ocean

Oceanography is divided into four branches:

1.Biological oceanography: Biological oceanography is also called marine biology it investigates the ecology of marine organisms in the context of the physical, chemical and geological characteristics of their ocean environment and the biology of individual marine organisms.

2.Chemical oceanography: chemical oceanography is also called ocean chemistry, are the study of the chemistry of the ocean. Whereas chemical oceanography is mainly occupied with the study and understanding of seawater properties and its changes, ocean chemistry focuses mainly on the geochemical cycles.

3.Geological oceanography: geological oceanography is also called marine geology, is the study of the geology of the ocean floor including plate tectonics and paleoceanography.

4.Physical oceanography: physical oceanography is also called as the marine physics, studies the ocean's physical attributes including temperature-salinity structure, mixing, surface waves, internal waves, surface tides, internal tides, and currents.

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Coastal geography is the study of the changing region between the ocean and the land including both the physical geography that is coastal geomorphology, geology and oceanography and the human geography (sociology and history) of the coast. It includes understanding wave actions, sediment movement, weather and coastal weathering processes and the ways in which humans interact with the shore Pollution also causes economic losses, it  accompanies most kinds of human activities including offshore oil and marine oil transportation and gas production  the coast is also known as the coastline or seashore coastline and seashore are the areas where land meets the ocean or the boundary line between the land and ocean or a lake  that boundary line that can be called coastline
Coastal zone: coastal zone is the region where interaction of the sea and land processes occurs 

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Aquaculture industry can be developed by using Nano technology  by using different new tools like rapid disease detection etc….
there are numerous glimpses of the future application of this Nano technology in fish health management and water treatment in aquaculture animal breeding and post-harvest- harvest  technology

Nano technology can be applied on the areas related to aquaculture and fisheries are:

1.DNA-nano vaccines
2.gene delivery
3.samrt dug delivery
4.nano particles for enhancement of fish growth
5.nano delivery of  nutraceuticals
6. nanotechnology devices for aquatic environment management
7. Harvest and Post-Harvest Technology

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During the next 30 years worldwide demand for  aquaculture products is expected to grow by 70%if demand continues to rise and wild catches continue to decline  we will see a deficit of consumable fish and shell fish Aquaculture in the United States is huge business is greater than $36 billion industry providing nearly19%of the world’s seafood supply over the last 10 years  aquaculture production in the united states has nearly doubled this increase is expected to continue while similar increases in aquaculture are occurring globally aquaculture facilities now exist in every state compared to catfish in  the wild  Farm-raised catfish grow nearly 20% faster in fish-farms Many other countries are involved actively  in aquaculture practices worldwide Chile is the second largest  exporter Ecuador, Colombia and Peru have rapidly growing industries 70,000 tons of Atlantic and pacific salmon Canada producedin Asia about 75% of farmed shrimp is produced

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Intensive aquaculture systems water flows in and out continuously (flow through). This allows higher stocking densities. The intensive aquaculture system  require supply of quality water. Not as much of land is required to produce the same quantity of fish as compared to extensive and semi intensive systems. In the EU, 80% of farmed fish production is the following four species that are intensively farmed: rainbow trout (reared both in freshwater and at sea) and marine fishes Atlantic salmon, gilthead sea beam and European sea bass In intensive farming, the fish are kept at too high a stocking density to obtain significant amounts of feed from their environment.

In Vietnam pengaius catfish half of the production is for export US and EU being leading importers and it is farmed intensively, in the last decade Vietnamese production of pangasius has increased 10-fold  to 1.1 million tonnes in 2010 (78% of global farmed pangasius production) of which 0.66 million tonnes was exported.

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The four common oyster culture techniques in are:
Beach culture
Bag culture
Suspended culture
Dike culture

Oyster culture is one of the most projecting forms of marine aquaculture in the U.S. 31 million pounds of oysters were harvested in 2011 with a value of approximately $135 million Oysters generally grow in estuarine bodies of salt water  when it farmed the temperature and  salinity of water are controlled  or monitored as to induce fertilization or to speed the rate of maturation , maturation of the oysters it takes several years

The following are the steps to cultivating oysters:
1. Conditioning the broodstock, broodstock are the parent oysters it provides gametes forLarvae
2. oysters ripe with the gametes
3. All of the oysters in an area will brood at the same time to increase the chances that their gametes meet and fertile larvae are produced.

The aquaculture of salmonids is the of salmonids under controlled conditions for both commercial and recreational purposes. Salmonids salmon and rainbow trout along with carp are the two important fish groups in aquaculture The most commonly commercially farmed salmon is the Atlantic salmon. In Europe browntrout are commonly reared fish globally the aquaculture of salmonids was worth US$10.7 billion in 2007. Salmon

aquaculture production grew during the 25 years from 1982 to 2007.Norway with 33%, Chilewith 31%, and other European producers with 19%. Norway is leading producer of salmon Leading producers of farmed salmonids
Therapeutics: salmon produce calcitonin (needed to prevent osteoporosis) with 20 times higher bioactivity than that of human calcitonin.The adult Atlantic salmon averages about 4.5 kg in weight, while the king salmon averages about 10 kg, though individuals of 50–80 pounds (22–36 kg) are not uncommon. Chum salmon average about 4.5–5.5 kg; Coho salmon weigh about 3–4.5 kg; sockeye about 2–3 kg; and pink salmon, 1.3–2.7 kg.

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Offshore cultivation is also referred to as open ocean cultivation, is an developing approach to Mariculture or marine farming where fish farms are moved some distance offshore. The farms are positioned in deeper and fewer secure waters, where ever ocean currents are stronger than they are inshore 

One of the considerations with inshore cultivation is that discarded nutrients and excretory products will settle below the farm on the seafloor and harm the bio geographical region scheme. According to its proponents, the wastes from aquaculture that has been moved offshore tend to over excited from the positioning and diluted.

Brackish water or briny water is water that has a lot of salinity than H2O it's going to result from combining of H2O with H2O, as in estuaries, or it's going to occur in briny fossil aquifers. Brackish water is also the primary left-over product of the salinity gradient power process. Because brackish water is antagonistic to the growth of most terrestrial plant species, without appropriate management it is damaging to the environment. Technically, brackish water contains between 0.5 and 30 grams of salt per It is characteristic of many brackish surface waters that their salinity can vary considerably over space and/or time.
One of the vital briny water surroundings is that the flowering tree swamp or mangal. Many, although not all, flowering tree swamps fringe estuaries and lagoons wherever the salinity changes with every tide. Among the foremost specialised residents of flowering tree forests square measure mudskippers, fish that forage for food ashore, and archer fish, perch-like fish that "spit" at insects and different little animals living within the trees, sound them into the water wherever they will be devoured. Like estuaries, flowering tree swamps square measure extraordinarily vital breeding grounds for several fish, with species like snappers, halfbeaks, and Tarpon atlanticus spawning or maturing among them Marine & Fresh Water Aquaculture

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Recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) are used in home aquaria and for  production of fishes where exchange of water  is limited and the use of bio filtration is required toreduce ammonia toxicity. Other types of separation and environmental control are often alsonecessary to maintain hygienic water and provide a appropriate habitat for fish.

The main benefit of RAS is the ability to reduce the need for fresh, hygienic water while still maintaining a healthy environment for fish. To be operated economically commercial RAS must have high fish supplying densities, and many researchers are currently conducting studies to determine if RAS is a viable form of intensive aquaculture

1.  Grow out tank design
2. Solids removal system
3.Biofiltration system (Design and Materials)
4.Dissolved gas control system
5.Feeds and feeding

Common diseases of fish: ulcers, cloud eye, dropsy, white spot, bacterial infection, fungal infections etc….Pathogens which can cause fish diseases
Viral infections
Bacterial infections
Fungal infections
Water moulds

Ulcers: Pseudomonas and Aeromonas bacteria it causes ulcers symptoms are pinky-white open wounds often with a white edge and sometimes secondarily infected by fungi and other bacteria   

reason for infection: very poor water quality or an excessively high pH level
Action: test the water for ammonia and nitrite or change water to reduce the pollution levels Treatment: fish lose salts through open wounds add aquarium salt at a dose of 1-3 g/litre and use anti-ulcer treatment

Cloud eye: Cloud eye is caused by the poor water quality and poor diet Symptoms: entire surface or lens of eye takes cloudy appearance
Reason: commonly caused by the poor water conditions
Treatment & Action:  improve water conditions

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